V. Carbonea*, R. Fluita*, P. Pellikaana, M.M. van der Krogta,b, D. Janssenc, M. Damsgaardd, L. Vignerone, T. Feilkasf, H.F.J.M. Koopmana, N. Verdonschota,c

 aLaboratory of Biomechanical Engineering, MIRA Institute, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands

 bDepartment of Rehabilitation Medicine, Research Institute MOVE, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

 cOrthopaedic Research Laboratory, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

 dAnyBody Technology A/S, Aalborg, Denmark

 eMaterialise N.V., Leuven, Belgium

 fBrainlab AG, Munich, Germany

*The authors Carbone and Fluit contributed equally.

Journal of Biomechanics, Available online 8 January 2015,


Twente Lower Extremity Model 2.0 is a new comprehensive dataset of the musculoskeletal geometry of the lower extremity, which is based on medical imaging data and dissection performed on the right lower extremity of a fresh male cadaver. The new TLEM 2.0 dataset was purposely built to be easily combined with novel image-based scaling techniques, such as bone surface morphing, muscle volume registration and muscle-tendon path identification, in order to obtain subject-specific musculoskeletal models in a quick and accurate way.

Bone, muscle and subcutaneous fat (including skin) volumes were segmented from computed tomography and magnetic resonance images scans. Inertial parameters were estimated from the image-based segmented volumes. A complete cadaver dissection was performed, in which bony landmarks, attachments sites and lines-of-action of 55 muscle actuators and 12 ligaments, bony wrapping surfaces, and joint geometry were measured. The obtained musculoskeletal geometry dataset was finally implemented in the AnyBody Modeling System™ (AnyBody Technology A/S, Aalborg, Denmark), resulting in a model consisting of 12 segments, 11 joints and 21 degrees of freedom, and including 166 muscle-tendon elements for each leg.

The complete TLEM 2.0 dataset is freely shared with the scientific community to be used for non-commercial use only, in order to accelerate the development and adoption of subject-specific models on large scale.. The musculoskeletal model dataset and the segmented bone surfaces are available registering at under acceptance of the TLEMsafe Research License Agreement. CT and MRI scans, and segmented muscle and skin-fat  volumes are available upon request to be sent to TLEMsafe Project coordinator, Prof. Dr. Ir. Nico Verdonschot (n.verdonschot AT, after approval of the TLEMsafe consortium.

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